Common Name: Ohio buckeye
Hardiness Zone: 3 to 7
Height: 20 to 40 ft
Width: 20 to 40 ft
The Ohio buckeye can be a very large tree if grown in the open, capable of reaching heights of 75’ and 2’ in diameter. Though it is often grown in urban landscapes and typically reaches heights of 20’ to 40’. Its bark becomes rough with shallow, wrinkly gray-brown ridge pattern. Older bark is rough with shallow longitudinal ridges. Their trunks are typically 10 to 16 inches diameter max in Minnesota. The branches and twigs are very stout especially on full sun specimens. Terminal buds very large usually 1.5” long. Its bud scales are also egg-shaped with pointed tips they are a dull, light brown colored. The leaf scars on the buckeyes have the appearance of a smiley faced with three conspicuous vascular bundle scars. Flowers are large often 12” long. They are very showy upright terminal clusters of yellow-green flowers that develop in early spring.
Leaves grow oppositely on the stem, they are palmately compound with 5 to 7 leaflets per leaf. These leaves at the branch tips can be tightly clustered nearly appearing whorled. Each leaflet is between 2.5” and 6” inches in length. They are elliptical and are finely serrate around the margin. The upper surface is hairless and bright green, the lower surface is paler in color with tufts of hair in the venation. Its fall color is gold to red-orange, though leaves often fall off the tree early due to foliar leaf spot diseases and leaf scorch. The buckeye fruit is a fleshy, globular capsule about 1.5” to 2” in diameter. It is a golden brown with a leathery surface that is covered in short spines. Each capsule will contain between 1 and 3 nuts that are rather large and have a shiny, dark reddish-brown color with a large, pale, circular "eye".
Where it grows:
Prefers acidic soil, moist, well-drained soil. It will tolerate occasional droughts, alkaline soil, and wet and dry sites. Best in full sun to partial shade
How it’s used:
Often used as a shade or ornamental tree in the landscape. It is not recommended to plant this tree on boulevards due to its large seed.
Squirrels love the nut, burying it widely and volunteer saplings are typically common in lawn edges, gardens and woodline edges near a parent tree.
Where it is native to:
The Ohio Buckeye is to the eastern United States and into Minnesota, Iowa, and Nebraska.
Known Varieties and Their Traits:
Early Glow™ Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra 'J.N. Select'): A cultivar with superior resistance to leaf blotch, leaf scorch and powdery mildew. Reliable red fall color and low fruit production. A Chicagoland Grows™ introduction. Availability may be limited.
The buckeye is susceptible to leaf blotch, powdery mildew, and infestation by insects such as scale and Japanese beetles.
Minnesota Wildflowers. (Aesculus glabra) Found Online: https://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/tree/ohio-buckeye
Missouri Botanical Garden. (Plant Finder) Found Online: http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/PlantFinder/PlantFinderDetails.aspx?taxonid=281045&isprofile=1&basic=Aesculus%20glabra
The Morton Arboretum. (Trees & Plants) Found Online: https://www.mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-plant-descriptions/ohio-buckeye